Volcanic influence on centennial to millennial Holocene Greenland temperature change

Guest commentary from Jonny McAneney. You heard it here first …. Back in February, we wrote a post suggesting that Greenland ice cores may have been incorrectly dated in prior to AD This was based on research by Baillie and McAneney which compared the spacing between frost ring events physical scarring of living growth rings by prolonged sub-zero temperatures in the bristlecone pine tree ring chronology, and spacing between prominent acids in a suite of ice cores from both Greenland and Antarctica. Last month, in an excellent piece of research Sigl et al. The clinching evidence was provided by linking tree-ring chronologies to ice cores through two extraterrestrial events…. In , Miyaki et al. The cause of this increase was possibly due to a very high energy solar proton event Usoskin et al. But 14 C is not the only cosmogenic isotope produced by such high energy events.

A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene

Geochronological data of the conifer tree rings in a region sensitive to climatic effects of explosive eruptions were analysed for sudden growth reductions in association with extraordinarily cool reconstructed summer temperatures since B. Calendar year dates when the tree-ring signatures i. Previous new evidence are in agreement in demonstrating volcanism behind late-Holocene events in A. Our data show that earlier events were found to have occurred in the years B. Interestingly, events of lesser magnitude followed the three major events in A.

Comment on “A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene” by B. M. Vinther et al. Denton, Joanna S.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.

It is named after an indicator genus , the alpine – tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala , as its leaves are occasionally abundant in late glacial, often minerogenic-rich sediments, such as the lake sediments of Scandinavia. Physical evidence of a sharp decline in temperature over most of the Northern Hemisphere has been discovered by geological research. This temperature change occurred at the end of what the earth sciences refer to as the Pleistocene epoch and immediately before the current, warmer Holocene epoch.

In archaeology , this time frame coincides with the final stages of the Upper Paleolithic in many areas. The Younger Dryas was the most recent and longest of several interruptions to the gradual warming of the Earth’s climate since the severe LGM, about 27, to 24, years BP. It is thought [4] to have been caused by a decline in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation , which transports warm water from the Equator towards the North Pole , in turn thought to have been caused by an influx of fresh, cold water from North America to the Atlantic.

Younger Dryas

When data from more than one ice core is available in a certain time period, it is often very helpful to synchronize the ice cores during the dating effort. In this way, the accuracy of the dating can be improved and the time scale can be applied to both cores at the same time, greatly improving the value of the data for investigating the dynamics of past climate. Synchronization can be achieved by matching layers of high acidity or high impurity content in the cores.

Volcanic layers are more acidic than the surrounding ice due to the large amount of sulphuric acid generated in the atmosphere by the release of sulphate from volcanic eruptions. When two or more cores have been synchronized in a certain interval, it is possible to carry out the annual layer counting in all cores simultaneously, using that the same number of annual layers must be present in the same interval in all ice cores see lower part of the figure above.

during the last glacial in Greenland ice cores, and then consider some of the other signals complete multi-parameter layer-counted dating over the last 60 ka. (Svensson et al., ). For the Holocene section, the DYE-3, GRIP and NGRIP cores were synchronised using the pattern of volcanic sulphate spikes, and the.

Vinther, H. Clausen, S. Johnsen, S. Rasmussen, Katrine Krogh Andersen, S. Buchardt, D. Siggaard-Andersen, J. Steffensen, A.

A synchronized dating of three greenland ice cores throughout the holocene

Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition including greenhouse gases , volcanism, solar activity, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others.

In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than , years before present Jouzel et al. A few ice cores from high-elevation glaciers in the Himalayas Thompson et al. In order to make proper interpretation of ice core records, it is essential to establish accurate and precise ice core chronologies that assign an age to each depth segment of the core.

As part of the effort to create the new Greenland Ice Core Chronology (​GICC05) a synchronized stratigraphical timescale for the Holocene.

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Younger Dryas

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glacier advance of similar extent to that of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ∼3 kyr ago. Finally previous Holocene surface exposure dating studies in the Alps 1 We added 60 yr to the calibrated radiocarbon ages to synchronize with the 10Be ages, which are records in Greenland ice cores and in Swiss lake sediments (​Figs. 4.

Either your web browser doesn’t support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Solar variability has been hypothesized to be a major driver of North Atlantic millennial-scale climate variations through the Holocene along with orbitally induced insolation change. However, another important climate driver, volcanic forcing has generally been underestimated prior to the past 2, years partly owing to the lack of proper proxy temperature records.

Here, we reconstruct seasonally unbiased and physically constrained Greenland Summit temperatures over the Holocene using argon and nitrogen isotopes within trapped air in a Greenland ice core GISP2. We show that a series of volcanic eruptions through the Holocene played an important role in driving centennial to millennial-scale temperature changes in Greenland. Therefore, we conclude that volcanic activity played a critical role in driving centennial to millennial-scale Holocene temperature variability in Greenland and likely beyond.

Holocene climate variability is important to understand the process of human societal development from a hunter-gatherer society to the present complex society 1 , 2. However, precise understanding of Holocene climate variability on multidecadal to millennial scales has been elusive owing to the lack of adequate archives recording small temperature signals and poorer chronologies further back in time 3.

This method relies on temperature-dependent gas fractionation in the unconsolidated snow layer 5. Temperature gradients between the top and bottom of the unconsolidated snow layer induce gas fractionation 6. After which the fractionated gasses are trapped in ice at the bottom of the firn layer 4. By measuring nitrogen and argon isotopes in ice cores, we can reconstruct past temperature gradients Fig.

How are ice cores dated?

Markova A. Chief -Scott A. Elsevier B. Puzachenko A. Paris, 23—28 August

in the Holocene part and about 3% for the older parts. These counting error initiation of the Copenhagen Ice Core Dating Initiative, with the construction of a new (), A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the​.

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Alley, C. Shuman, D. Meese, A. Gow, K. Taylor et al.

glacier advance of similar extent to that of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ∼3 kyr ago. Finally previous Holocene surface exposure dating studies in the Alps 1 We added 60 yr to the calibrated radiocarbon ages to synchronize with the 10Be ages, which are records in Greenland ice cores and in Swiss lake sediments (​Figs. 4.

Several decades of ice-penetrating radar surveys of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have observed numerous widespread internal reflections. Analysis of this radiostratigraphy has produced valuable insights into ice sheet dynamics and motivates additional mapping of these reflections. Here we present a comprehensive deep radiostratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne deep ice-penetrating radar data collected over Greenland by The University of Kansas between and To map this radiostratigraphy efficiently, we developed new techniques for predicting reflection slope from the phase recorded by coherent radars.

When integrated along track, these slope fields predict the radiostratigraphy and simplify semiautomatic reflection tracing. Core-intersecting reflections were dated using synchronized depth-age relationships for six deep ice cores. Additional reflections were dated by matching reflections between transects and by extending reflection-inferred depth-age relationships using the local effective vertical strain rate.

The oldest reflections, dating to the Eemian period, are found mostly in the northern part of the ice sheet.

Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

I was wondering how ice cores are dated accurately. I know Carbon 14 is one method, but some ice cores go back hundreds of thousands of years. Would other isotopes with longer half-lives be more accurate? Also, how much does it cost to date the core? How are samples acquired without destroying the ice?

Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller ice cores from lower latitudes are constrained to the Holocene period A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene.

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Climate change: understanding the facts (Vostok ice core)